Following this week’s lecture, I became fascinated with Ericsson’s smart home. After some research, I have discovered another aspect of Internet of Things – smart cities. McLaren & Agyeman 2015 define the smart city concept as an urban area that uses different types of electronic data collection sensors to supply information which is used to manage assets and resources efficiently. Smart cities use new technologies and data management to achieve sustainable development and adapt to the rise in urbanization. Smart city spending worldwide is estimated to reach about $81 billion globally in 2018. (Newman 2018)
Please watch this video I have created, which explains the smart city concept further, using Seoul, South Korea as an example:
McLaren, D & Agyeman, J 2015, Sharing cities, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Newman L 2018, The Sensors That Power Smart Cities Are a Hacker’s Dream, Wired, <https://www.wired.com/story/sensor-hubs-smart-cities-vulnerabilities-hacks/>.
The internet doesn’t like deletion, its default setting is to record – and keep. Erasing yourself completely from the Internet is nearly impossible.
Signing up for a social media account is basically giving the Internet permission to learn more about you. In particular, Facebook is very good at tracking what you do across the rest of the Web. And this applies even when you’re not actively using Facebook.
You can delete all unnecessary content from your social media accounts, essentially giving them a ‘clean up’. However it is almost impossible to delete yourself from the Internet.
This article provides further insight.
Davis 2014 defines hacktivism as “the use of computers and computer networks to promote political ends, chiefly free speech, human rights, and information ethics”. Hacktivism can be used for good or evil, as with any technology.
Anonymous are considered the most famous/infamous hacktivist group in the world. The group is composed of a loosely organized international network of hacktivists, and is used by people all over the world. Anonymous originates from the online image-based bulletin board 4chan, which started in 2003. (Stanek 2015) The name “Anonymous” was inspired by the perceived anonymity under which users posted on 4chan and this is also depicted in the group’s two symbols: the Guy Fawkes mask and the “man without head” image. These symbols also highlight the group’s inscrutability and lack of any formal leadership, which has spawned the saying ““we are all the same, this is why you can’t defeat us”.
Davis D. 2014, Hacktivism: good or evil?, Computer Weekly, <https://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/Hacktivism-Good-or-Evil>.
Stanek B. 2015, How Did Anonymous Start? The History Of The Mysterious “Hacktivist” Group Began Quite Some Time Ago, Bustle, <https://www.bustle.com/articles/65444-how-did-anonymous-start-the-history-of-the-mysterious-hacktivist-group-began-quite-some-time-ago>.
Bill Gates once said that we systematically overestimate the change that will occur in two years, while underestimating the change that will come in the next ten. Increasingly, newspapers, magazines, and radio stations are becoming more and more obsolete. Ken Lerer, co-founder of The Huffington Post and current chairman for Buzzfeed, described the challenges of traditional media as “You have to fix the plane while you’re flying it.” (Desjardins 2016)
Web 2.0 and the rise of ‘produsage’ has fuelled the new paradigm where digital is the focus. Desjardins 2016 further mentions that digital will become the largest channel for ad revenue globally by 2019. He also notes that investors and companies that believe in the media business should position themselves accordingly.
Desjardins, J 2016, The slow death of legacy media, Business Insider, <https://www.businessinsider.com/the-slow-death-of-legacy-media-2016-10?IR=T>.
One of the main arguments for Android being “better” than Apple is that the Android operating system is supposedly open source. But is Android really open source? And does it even really matter?
Android is made from Linux, and many open source users first picked up an Android phone because of the appeal of a Linux-based mobile operating system. However, despite the Linux appeal and what Google has done with the operating system, the Android phone you pick up from the store is actually running a fair amount of closed source code.
Android, Inc. was established in 2005 and Google bought it two years later. Android has open source roots, in the same year Google and several other companies formed the Open Handset Alliance, with Android being the primary piece of software. This article here explains why Android isn’t exactly open source and what that means for mobile users.
Clay Shirky famously said the internet imposes no barriers to entry, no economies of scale, and no limits on supply. So what are Walled Gardens? Well, simply put, they are closed, hierarchical, centralised databases… Furthermore, a Walled Garden is “a closed ecosystem in which all the operations are controlled by the ecosystem operator.” (Poulpiquet 2017)
An early example is the telecommunication industry during the 70s. For example, in the USA, Bell System was owning all of the phone hardware that its customers were using, because back then buying our own phone wasn’t possible. Nowadays, a more recent example is Apple controlling the whole iOS ecosystem by having an overall control over iOS applications.
Poulpiquet P. 2017, What is a Walled Garden? And why it is the strategy of Google, Facebook and Amazon Ads platform?, Medium, <https://medium.com/mediarithmics-what-is/what-is-a-walled-garden-and-why-it-is-the-strategy-of-google-facebook-and-amazon-ads-platform-296ddeb784b1>