Clay Shirky famously said the internet imposes no barriers to entry, no economies of scale, and no limits on supply. So what are Walled Gardens? Well, simply put, they are closed, hierarchical, centralised databases… Furthermore, a Walled Garden is “a closed ecosystem in which all the operations are controlled by the ecosystem operator.” (Poulpiquet 2017)
An early example is the telecommunication industry during the 70s. For example, in the USA, Bell System was owning all of the phone hardware that its customers were using, because back then buying our own phone wasn’t possible. Nowadays, a more recent example is Apple controlling the whole iOS ecosystem by having an overall control over iOS applications.
Poulpiquet P. 2017, What is a Walled Garden? And why it is the strategy of Google, Facebook and Amazon Ads platform?, Medium, <https://medium.com/mediarithmics-what-is/what-is-a-walled-garden-and-why-it-is-the-strategy-of-google-facebook-and-amazon-ads-platform-296ddeb784b1>